The trafficking in human beings prevention: a criminological perspective part two

Author:Maria Cristina Giannini - Laura C. Di Filippo
Position:Professor PhD of Criminology, Faculty of Law, University of Teramo (e-mail: mcgiannini@unite.it). - Professor PhD of Criminology, Faculty of Law, University of Teramo.
Pages:122-140
SUMMARY

Our study aims to prospect new criminological perspectives on trafficking in human beings starting from the role of indicators, the econometric principles of cost-benefit analysis, the theory of rationale choice, up to reach a new model about the 5 P’s strategies.

 
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THE TRAFFICKING IN HUMAN BEINGS
PREVENTION: A CRIMINOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE1
PART TWO
Maria Cristina GIANNINI*
Laura C. DI FILIPPO**
Abstract
Our study aims to p rospect new criminological perspectives on trafficking in human beings
starting from the role of indicators, the econ ometric principles of cost-benefit analysis, the theory of
rationale choice, up to reach a new model about the 5 P’s strategies.
Keywords: trafficking indicators, Rational Choice, Interdisciplinary/Transnational, 5 P’s
strategy.
1. New Criminological Perspectives
on Trafficking in Human Beings
Prevention
1
a) The Role of Trafficking Indicators
according to a Dynamic Multidisciplinary
Dimension: Trafficking Indicators,
Risk/Vulnerability Factors, Risk Situation
The Trafficking in Human Beings
prevention has been always associated to a
numerous trafficking indicators specified
and identified in the operative activity and
formalized when the trafficking has already
happened, as the following by:
a.1) UNODC Human Trafficking
indicators 2014 (indicators divided in
general, children, domestic servitude, sexual
exploitation, labour exploitation, begging
and petty crime)
Professor PhD of Criminology, Faculty of Law, University of Teramo (e-mail: mcgiannini@unite.it).
 Professor PhD of Criminology, Faculty of Law, University of Teramo.
1
Paper presented at EUCPN EUROPEAN CRIME PREVENTION NETWORK Conference, Rome 7-8 October
2014, organized by Presidenza Italiana del Consiglio dell’Unione Europea, Dipartimento di Polizia/ Cooperazione
Internazionale del Ministero dell’Interno ed il Dipartimento di Giustizia Minorile del Ministero della Giustizia.
GENERAL INDICATORS
people who have been trafficked
may:
believe that they must work against
their will
be unable to leave their work
environment
show signs that their movements are
being controlled
feel that they cannot leave
show fear or anxiety
be subjected to violence or threats o f
violence against themselves or against their
family members and loved ones
suffer injuries that appear to be the
result of an assault
suffer injuries or impairments typical
of certain jobs or control measures
suffer injuries that appear to be the
Maria Cristina GIANNINI, Laura C. DI FILIPPO 123
LESIJ NO. XXII, VOL. 2/2015
result of the application of control measures
be distrustful of the authorities
be threatened with being handed over
to the authorities
be afraid of revealing their
immigration status
not be in possession of their passports
or other travel or identity documents, as
those documents are being held by someone
else
have false identity or travel documents
be found in or connected to a type of
location likely to be used for exploiting
people
be unfamiliar with the local language
not know their home or work address
allow others to speak for them when
addressed directly
act as if they were instructed by
someone else
be forced to work under certain
conditions
be disciplined through punishment
be unable to negotiate working
conditions
receive little or no payment
have no access to their earnings
work excessively long hours over long
periods
not have any days off
live in poor or substandard
accommodations
have no access to medical care
have limited or no social interaction
have limited contact with their families
or with people outside of their immediate
environment
be unable to communicate freely with
others
be under the perception that they are
bonded by debt
be in a situation of dependence
come from a place known to be a
source of human trafficking
have had the fees for their transport to
the country of destination paid for by
facilitators, whom they must pay back b y
working or providing services in the
destination
have acted on the basis of false
promises
age-generally younger people of both
genders are prone to be trafficked for all
purposes
Gender - in sexual exploitation mainly
female. in other forms of trafficking, victim
types vary according to nature of exploitation
etc.
location of origin - developing
economies, locations in crisis or transition;
documentation - travel or identity
documents held by others;
last location - location associated with
exploitation of commercial trafficking
processes;
transport - escorted travel even for
short distances;
Circumstances of referral - referred
after recovery by no, client rescue, self-
referral, etc.
CHILDREN
children who have been trafficked
may:
have no access to their parents or
guardians
look intimidated and behave in a way
that does not correspond with behavior
typical of children their age
have no friends of their own age
outside of work
have no access to education
have no time for playing
live apart from other children and in
substandard accommodations
eat apart from other members of the
“family"
be given only leftovers to eat

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