Jurisprudential aspects regarding the action in annulment of the debtor's patrimonial transfers, the debtor being in insolvency procedure

Author:Angela Miff
Position:Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, 'Babes Bolyai' University
Pages:24-48
SUMMARY

The study aims to present relevant aspects from the jurisprudential solutions of the High Court of Cassation and Justice in matters of the action in annulment of the patrimonial transfers of the debtor in insolvency procedure and of other judicial actions introduced by the procedure bodies or, by case, the participants to the procedure who are enabled to use the measures prescribed by the law for ... (see full summary)

 
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Jurisprudential aspects regarding the action in annulment
of the debtor’s patrimonial transfers, the debtor being in insolvency
procedure
Lecturer Angela MIFF
1
Abstract
The study aims to present relevant aspec ts from the jurisprudential solutions of t he
High Court of Cassation and Justice in matters of the action in annulment of the
patrimonial transfers of the debtor in insolvency procedure and of other judicial actions
introduced by the procedure bodies or, by case, the pa rticipants to the procedure who are
enabled to use the mea sures prescribed by the law for the purpose of restoring the debtor’s
patrimony. The jurisprudential solutions adopted under the incidence of the former Law
no.85/2006 on the insolvency procedure represent, in present, under diverse aspec ts,
elements of continuity with the principles and rules established by the new law in this
matter. Law no.85/2014 on the prevention insolvency procedures and of insolvency
establishes the legal frame for the exertion of the measures having as purpose the
restoration, in the debtor’s patrimony, of certain assets, transferred by the debtor to the
fraud of the creditors’ interests, or of their value, in the scope of covering the passive part
to satisfy the creditors’ interests. The new law continu es the tradition of the former
regulations in this matter but, also, brings some novelty elements such as the decrease or,
in some cases, the increase of th e duration of certain terms that the exertion of the
mentioned judicial actions or their object refer to or the completion of the category of the
persons entitled to introduce the mentioned judicial actions with the creditor who holds
more than 50% of the value of the claims enlisted in the amount of claims.
Keywords: insolvency, debtor, cred itor, bankruptcy, judicial reorganisation,
general procedure, simplified procedure, judicial action, action in annulment, judicial
administrator, judicial liquidator.
JEL Classification: K11, K22
1. Introductory considerations
The insolvency procedures within the two forms the judicial
reorganisation and bankruptcy in both regimes, general and simplified, design the
juridical institutional frame in which the specific operations and activities are
performed in the scope of the procedure, as mentioned by the law: instituting a
collective procedure for covering the passive of the debtor’s patrimony by granting
to him, when it is possible, the chance of recovery of business.
2
1
Angela Miff - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, „Babeş-Bolyai” University,
Cluj-Napoca, angela.miff@econ.ubbcluj.ro.
2
Art.2 of Law no.85/2014 having correspo ndent in the former art.2 of Law no.85/2006, repealed in
present.
Juridical Tribune Volume 5, Issue 1, June 2015
25
The application sphere of the insolvency procedures legislated by Law no.
85/2014 on the prevention of the insolvency procedures and of insolvency
3
includes the professionals, as these are defined by art. 3 parg. 2 of the Civil Code,
republished in 2011,
4
including the autonomous state-owned companies, exception
being the free-lancers,
5
as well as those under the incidence of special provisions
for the case of the insolvency regime.
In any of the methods or the regimes of the insolvency procedures, the
subject is designated with the name ”debtor”, and may be a physical person or a
legal person, following the distinctions made by the law.
The law makes a distinction between the debtors in insolvency who are
under the incidence of the insolvency procedures (judicial reorgnisation or
bankruptcy, the general procedure or the simplified procedure), on one hand, and
the debtors in state of financial dificulty who are under the incidence of the
insolvency prevention procedures (the ad-hoc mandate, the preventive concordat),
on the other hand.
The insolvency, as it is mentioned by art. 5 parg. 29 of the law, designates
”that state of t he debtor’s patrimony characterised by the insufficient available
funds for the payment of the valid, liquid and enforceable debts, as followes: a) the
debtor’s insolvency is presumed when, after 60 days from the due date, did not pay
the debt to the creditor; the presumption is relative; b) the insolvency is iminent
when it is proved that the debtor will not be able to pay at the due date the
aknowledged exigible debts, with the available sums of money at the due date”.
Thus, the debtors in a state of presumed insolvency or a state of iminent
insolvency, by case, will be submitted to the judicial reorganization (the debtors
legal person) or the bankruptcy, respectively, to the general regime or the
simplified regime.
As a consequence of the opening the insolvency procedure against the
debtor, the capitalization of the claims against him may be done only within the
common and concurrent procedure regulated by the law on the insolvency
procedure, as it was stated, for instance, in the decision no.2939 of 17 October
2008 given by the commercial division of the High Court of Cassation and Justice:
”as a consequence of the opening of the insolvency procedure against the debtor
SC S. SA joint stock company, the capitalization of the claims against the debtor
may be done only within this concurrent and common procedure, ...”.
6
3
Law no.85/2014 was published in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I, no.466/25.06.2014.
4
The new Civil Code was republished [1] in the Official Gazette of Romania, Part I,
no. 505/15.07.2011.
5
In the sense of the law of the insolvency procedure, the liberal profession is defined, by art. 5
parg.52, as the profession performed as a result of a professional qualification, with a professional
title, on personal liability and independently, implicating intellectual activities on behalf of the
client and serving the public interest. These professions are characterized by the existence o f an
ethical code, the continuous professional formation and confidentiality of the relation with the
client.
6
The High Court of Cassation and Justice, commercial division, decision no.2939/17.10.2008,
www.scj.ro, last access on May 1, 2015.

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