The rise of euroscepticism and the bad communication... 231
successive amendments of the treaties have increased the role of the European
Parliament and improved communication with citizens.
The study of European parliamentarianism highlighted the new challenges faced
by parliamentary activity and the requirements of its adaptation to the contemporary
socio-political context, depending on the diversity of national practices. Contrary to
increasing criticism, parliamentarism has strengthened, remaining the cornerstone of
Debates on the democratic deficit of the European institutions have led, first, to
an increase in the role of the European Parliament and, subsequently, to measures
relating to the transparency of its activities. Another important element was the
knowledge and improvement of the parliamentary procedures specific to this
original European institution, as well as the Community political system in which
it operates, enshrined in the White Paper of European Governance4.
Over time, the European Parliament has acquired attributes characteristic of
national parliaments: financial independence, internal organization, democratic
system of choice, immunity, parliamentary status, unification of European electoral
procedures, parliamentary group structure, etc. The European elites and its leaders
realized the important of communication and negotiations in order to get voters.
Giovanni Sartori while talking about the role of the Elites in setting up a
dynamic political equilibrium, he writes that the effect is generated by a problem
of conception, it is important how the political elites perceived power and the
game of power. In order for elites to have a positive influence, it should perceived
the political as a continuous negations (politics –as- bargaining), but when the elite
perceives politics like conflict, confrontation, war (politics- as -war) there is a great
chances for crisis and instability5.
EU hard-bargaining of the accession negotiations were bruising to the national
sense of sovereignty of countries that had newly regained it. Thus, although
becoming members of the EU was in some sense sovereignty and identity-enhancing,
it was at the same time a threat to the newly developing identities of these newly-
sovereign nations. This may help explain the backlash we have seen in recent years
by Central and Eastern European Countries elites against European integration, with
the rise of populism accompanying anti-European discourse in some such countries.
Rather, to contribute to more positive attitudes towards European integration, the
regional goals achieved in Brussels must be communicated to the constituents at
European Democracy is a political founding principle and is the expectance of
the millions of citizens like a treasure.
3 Oliver Costa, E. Kerrouche, P. Magnette, Vers un renouveau du parlementarisme en Europe,
Editions de l’Université de Bruxelles, 2004.
4 COM (2001) 428.
5 Giovanni Sartori, “Anti-elitism Revisited”, in Government and Opposition, 1987, p.224 apud
Vasile Dancu, Elite fara putere, pp. 4-5, #Sinteza 40, mai-iunie 2017.
6Anna Olsson, Euroscepticism Revisited - Regional Interest Representation in Brussels and the
Link to Citizen Attitudes towards European Integration, paper prepared for delivery at the 11th
Biennial International Conference of the European Union Studies Association, Los Angeles, Cali-
fornia, April 23-25, 2009.