The instruments of the environmental policy's economic regulation with a particular regard to the Hungarian System

Author:Zoltán Nagy
Position:PhD. Associate professor, University of Miskolc, Law Faculty, Institute of Public Law, Hungary
Pages:77-88
LESIJ NO. XXI, VOL. 1/2014
THE INSTRUMENTS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY’S
ECONOMIC REGULATION WITH A PARTICULAR REGARD TO
THE HUNGARIAN SYSTEM1
Zoltán NAGY*
Abstract
The paper describes the environmental policy regulation’s theor etical basis in economics with a
particula r regard to the main elements of the theories of Pigou, Baunol and Oates, and Coase. Different
analytical methods which play a n important role in case of economic instruments of environmental
policy are pr esented. The environmental objectives are going to be reached by the implementation of
economic instruments and the essential considerations in the formation of an effective system of assets
are also described. The theoretical basis of the implementation of economic instruments o f
environmental policy in the Europea n Union and the problems emerged, and the implementation of
economic instruments in Hunga ry in respect of the OECD Report ar e key featur es. At the end of the
paper the system of the economic instruments of environmental policy (environmental taxes,
environmental subsidies) are descr ibed according to the Hungar ian regulations in force.
Keywords: environmental protection, environmental la w, environmental taxes, environmental
subsidies, environmental policy, economic instr uments of environmental policy, environmental
pollution, environmental economics.
1. The theoretical basis of the
environmental policy’s regulation in
economics
1
The environmental pollution has been
in the focus of the state regulations and these
economic regulators act on the sustainable
development and the sustainable use of the
environment. These environmental
problems are the parts of the externalities,
which have long been interested the
representatives of the economic theory of
which some theories are going to be
analysed.
2
* Dr. Zoltán Nagy PhD. associate professor, University of Miskolc Law Faculty, Institute of Public Law, Hungary,
email: jogdrnz@uni-miskolc.hu.
1
This research was (partially) carried out in the framework of the Center of Excellence of Mechatronics and
Logistics at the University of Miskolc.
2
Nagy Zoltán: Fenntartható költségvetési elvonások rendszere a környezetvédelem területén, Publicationes
Universitatis Miskolciensis, Sectio Juridica et Politica, Tomus XXIX/1. Miskolc University Press, Miskolc, 2011.
247. p.
3
Kerekes Sándor: A környezetgazdaságtan alapjai, Budapest, 1998. www.mek.miif.hu 73. p.
Alfred Marshall was the first, who
introduced the concepts of external cost and
benefitsă ină hisă workă theă “Principlesă ofă
Economics”.ă Arthură Pigouă dealtă withă theă
problem of the externalities, within this the
environmentalăproblemsăină“TheăEconomics
ofăWelfare”ăfromă1920.
3
The externality is an unexpected
benefit and an extra cost, which is realized
for the actors outside of t he economic
events, whom do not have any influence on
these eve nts. Any economic event,
economic policy measure, changes in the
domestic or the international markets,
environmental or health impact can be an

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