The influence of artificial intelligence on criminal liability

AuthorMaxim Dobrinoiu
PositionAssociate Professor, Faculty of Law, 'Nicolae Titulescu' University, Bucharest
The nowadays deployment of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its expected relatively rap id
integration into various instances of the socio-economic or governmental life (e.g. household, hea lth,
industry, trade an d so on) represent a gr eat development opportunity for every nation, as well as a key
element for the evolution of the mankind. The elements of AI have already star ted to take over certain
human-type workouts or tasks, while it will take not so long until they will almost completely replace
individuals in performing their jobs, and thus evolve from the status of simple tools to the status of
“electronică persons”ă orăevenă subjectsă ofă law.ă Duringă theiră interactionă withă theă human-dominated
world, the AI-driven entities may either be in compliance or a conflict r elationship with the la w and
the society pr otected by the law, especia lly when a loss, a da mage or a casualty occur s. The article
further trea t the elements of AI as liable ag ainst the law, in general, and cr iminal law, in par ticular.
Keywords: Artificial Intelligence, criminal law, criminal liability, electronic per son.
1. The concept of artificial
intelligence and its impact on social life
At the European level, the term
“artТПТМТală ТntОllТРОnМО”ă (AI)ă аasă oППТМТallвă
rОПОrrОНă toă asă “sвstОmsă tСată НТsplaвă
intelligent behavior by a nalyzing their
environment and taking actions with some
degree of autonomy to achieve specific
From its alread y far deployment in
areas like: medicine, transportation,
industry, agriculture, military, public order,
Cybersecurity, client-interaction,
technology research and improvement,
Internet of Things IoT and so on, the AI
AssoМТatОăProПОssor,ăFaМultвăoПăLaа,ă“NТМolaОăTТtulОsМu”ăUnТvОrsТtв, Bucharest (email:
1 See the Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council,
the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions, Artificial Intelligence for Europe,
COM (2018) 237 final, Brussels, 25.04.2018.
2 The Cambridge Dictionary, available at, accessed
significant part of our socio-economic life.
It is worth understanding, in a first
pСasО,ă аСată rОallвă mОansă botСă “artТПТМТal”ă
rОРarНОНăasă РooНă“maНОă bвăpОoplО,ăoПtОnă
asă aă Мopвă oПă somОtСТnРă natural”2,
“ТntОllТРОnМО”ă Сasă ată lОast the following
mОanТnРs:ă “tСОă abТlТtвă toă lОarnă anНă
understand or to deal with new or trying
sТtuatТons”,ă“tСОă skТllОНăusОă oПărОason”,ă anНă
“tСОă abТlТtвă toă applвă knoаlОНРОă toă
manТpulatОă onО’să ОnvТronmОntă oră toă tСТnkă

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