Volume 8, Issue 2, June 2018 Juridical Tribune 325
consequence, the subject of the research conducted by theoreticians of law is also
the application of private law in the public sector. Therefore, there are a number of
methodological problems of semantic nature. Although several areas can be
distinguished in the methodology of law theory5, yet the linguistic or logical-
linguistic plane still plays a leading role. Law itself is considered as a language
As argued by the outstanding Polish methodologist K. Ajdukiewicz, in
empirical sciences, which in most classifications comprise legal sciences,7
cognition is a "derivative of accepted linguistic cognitive tools", which in
consequence leads to the conclusion that cognition in its essence is of conventional
character.8 According to K. Ajdukiewicz, "all the judgments that we accept and
which form our entire picture of the world are not yet clearly determined by the
data of the experience, but depend on the choice of conceptual apparatus with the
help of which we copy the data of the experience."9 Consequently, if we change the
conceptual apparatus, "we can refrain from recognizing these judgments despite the
presence of the same experience data."10 The views of K. Ajdukiewicz have for
many years influenced the work of Polish legal scientists. In particular, there is a
consensus around another well-known statement of K. Ajdukiewicz claiming that
one of the tendencies in the development of science is the constant striving to
Vol. 17, No 1 (43), 2018, p. 41. The law on any public relations cannot be implemented without the
mechanism of their regulation. The mechanism of legal regulation has fundamental significance for
the civil regulation of contractual relations because it provides a systematic approach to the analysis
of legal regimentation. This category allows identifying all legal means, other objects (phenomena)
involved in the legal regulation of contractual relations, and to consider them in conjunction with
each other as the only legal mechanism (I. Kalaur, N. Fedorchenko, op. cit., p. 40).
5 See K. Opałek, J. Wróblewski, Law: Methodology - Philosophy - Prawo. Metodologia, filozofia,
teoria prawa, Warsaw 1991, p. 55 and n., pp. 97 and n., pp. 149 and n. J. Łakomy, Pojęcie
integracji zewnętrznej nauk prawnych, Wrocławskie Studia Erazmiańskie. Z eszyty Studenckie.
Studia Erasmiana Wratislaviensia , Wrocław 2009, p. 52 and n.
6 See M. Dąbrowska-Kardas, Analiza dyrektywalna przepisów części ogólnej Kodeksu karnego,
Warsaw 2012, p.15.
7 On the subject of legal disciplines as empirical sciences, see J. Woleński, Empiricism, Theory and
Speculation in the General Study of Law, [in] Archivum Iuridicum Cracoviense, 1970, vol. III,
p. 41; W. Patryas, Próba wyjaśnienia domniemań prawnych, Poznań 2011, p. 7 and n.; As M.
Dąbrowska-Kardas points out, "in the legal considerations, the basic methodological tool still
consists in logical-linguistic methods. Most probably, this is due to the fact that the logical-
linguistic platform brings together research on the law as a language system as well as linguistic
aspects of legal practice. Thus, it covers such issues as the meaning of linguistic expressions, the
methodological characteristics of jurisprudence, the justification of decisions in law enforcement
processes, the general features of legal systems, and the structure of a legal norm." See M.
Dąbrowska-Kardas, Analiza dyrektywalna …, p.15.
8 K. Ajdukiewicz, Obraz świata i aparatura pojęciowa, [in] Język i pozna nie, Warsaw, vol. I, 1985,
p. 175; see also I. Zachariasz, Prawo w ujęciu strukturalnym, Studium o dychotomicznym podziale
prawa na prawo publiczne i prawo prywatne, Warsaw 2016, p. 29.
9 See K. Ajdukiewicz, Obraz…, p. 175.
10 See K. Ajdukiewicz, Obraz…, p. 181. K. Ajdukiewicz's cognitive conventionalism corresponds to
the concept of cognition, created by the German philosopher H. Vaihinger. This philosopher wrote
about the conventional shaping of the world image (Das menschliche Vorstellungsgebilde der
Welt). See H. Vaihinger, Die Philosophie des "als ob", Berlin, 1911, p. 14.