76 Adrian Cristian Moise
pornographic material with minors and when attempting to develop different
descriptive categories. In the case where a pornographic material with minors is
intentionally or accidentally accessed, whenever this material is accessed for sexual
purposes, the minors in that pornographic material become victims through the
perpetrator's fantasy. We therefore consider that minors in pornographic materials
become victims in the online environment, first when is committed and when the
sexual abuse is recorded by the offender, and then they become victims whenever
that recording is accessed in cyberspace.
A classification of different types of pornographic materials with minors is
based on a descriptive analysis of an extensive collection of pornographic materials
with minors, existing in a database, based on a project called COPINE- Combating
Paedophile Information Networks in Europe - developed by the Cork University in
Ireland8. This database contains examples of child pornography materials available
to the public, relying entirely on Internet resources. The researchers in the COPINE
project have made a classification of pornographic materials with minors on ten
levels9 of severity, which differ according to the increase in sexual victimization.
This classification system deliberately includes child pornography materials that
do not fall under any legal definition of child pornography, and in view of this, it is
important to emphasize that these child pornography collections in the COPINE
database, in essence, is not an inappropriate indicator10.
§3. The use of Internet to promote child pornography
Internet contributes to the development of child pornography by increasing
the amount of pornographic materials with minors available in the cyberspace,
through efficient distribution and easy access to these materials. Child
pornography through the Internet poses a number of challenges that traditional
pornographic materials with minors do not have. The Internet gives criminals the
possibility to hide their true identity, thus becoming anonymous, this characteristic
contributing to an increase in the number of consumers of child pornography.
Internet anonymity also allows adults to create different profiles in the online
environment, claiming that they are actually children, making it easier to contact
minors. Online criminals easily use anonymous proxy servers, many of which are
free and located in other countries. Proxy servers allow a single computer system
connected to the Internet to interact with one or more computer systems. Using a
8 Sheldon, Kerry; Howitt, Dennis (2007). Sex Offenders and the Internet, Chichester, West Sussex:
John Wiley & Sons Ltd., p. 46; Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen (2012). Internet Child Pornography.
Causes, Investigation and Prevention, Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO, LLC, pp. 60-72.
9 Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen (2012). Child Pornography on the Internet, Community
Oriented Policing Services. U.S. Department of Justice, Problem-Oriented Guides for Police.
Problem-Specific Guides Series No.41, Washington D.C.: Center for Problem-Oriented Policing, Inc.,
10 Taylor, Max; Quayle, Ethel (2003). Child Pornography. An Internet Crime, New York: Taylor &
Francis Group, Brunner Routledge, pp. 31-32.