The land fragmentation is one of the serious problems in Slovakia which is given
by the historical development of the land law. In the past, landowners tried to solve this
problem by creation of various forms of land associations oriented to the common
cultivation of agricultural land and forest land. Nowadays, the Slovak lawmaker decided to
regulate the institute of lan d associations by the law. Land associations in Slovakia are
legal entities conducting agricultural business on agricultural land, forest land or in water
areas; moreover, they can provide also other business activities according to particular
legal regulations. Land associations conduct business on real estate property or, more
commonly, properties, which are usually owned by many co-owners, because the individual
cultivation of small part of land plots would not be effective. However, th e law is a subject
of legal amendments more often than necessary in order to ensure the legal certainty. This
paper in troduces this recondite legal entity, its activities, its internal government and the
ownership rights of its members. A pre-emption right that has a special lega l regulation
different from the general legal regulations of the pre-emption rights in the Civil Code is
one of the special issues.
Keywords: land association, agricultural land, legal regulation, o wner of the co mmon real
estate property, land fragmentation.
JEL Classification: K12
Land associations sprang from urbarial co-ownership of land and other
similar units established in medieval feudalism. Those units represented a special
type of common (joint) use of land, which has persisted up to the present day and
does not fit into the common ownership and use relations regulated by the Civil
Code. In 1848, serfdom was abolished and the Urbarial Patent of 1853 recognized
the former serfs as owners of the land they had in their personal use.