Jurisprudence in ancient rome
|Position:||Professor, Ph.D. - Transylvania University of Brasov|
Among the formal sources of law, jurisprudence occupies a central position, as, by its form and content, it brought expression to a system of law which would become the fundament of law in posthumous ages, thus creating a treasure of ancient civilizations in regard to universal cultural and scientific patrimony. Initially, jurisprudence was achieved by empirical means, by the so-called case interpretation which was unable to provide the necessary background in order to elaborate universal principles of law or systematized interpretation which would represent the fundament of future legal construction. In the classical age, jurisprudence will reach its highest level, thus giving new dimension to the greatness and glory of Roman law, as legal advisers of those times will phrase principles and rules of law by combining different legal cases; thus, they prove to be great exegetes with a real sense of enforcing laws, thus, the regulations of ius civiliae become abstract legal provisions. This is the reason why the most interesting source of law of this age is responsa prudentium, namely the consultations given by the legal advisers; during this age, these consultations are no longer simple opinions which do not oblige the judge, but special concessions form the emperor, thus becoming mandatory regulations. Although, in present times, this possibility of the judge to rule by considering the opinion of a legal adviser, which might tilt the balance of justice one way or another is no longer in effect, the legal advisers still maintain their influence over the rulings of courts even if by indirect means, as is the case of appeal in the interest of law.