General aspects on academic ethics… 125
designate exclusively positive behaviour of the person, this being an example of
semantic evolution of a word, with the evolution of social consciousness.
Apart from the two terms mentioned above, which seem to have a similar
content, the term "deontological" is also used with a meaning close to them.
Regarding the relationship between these terms, it was stated that "there is a
distinction, both etymological and of content, between ethics and deontology:
deontology is that part of ethics that studies the norms and obligations specific to a
professional activity, while the notion of ethics has a broader sphere, including
both the study of norms and obligations, as well as the study of primary notions
that justify the establishment of these norms and obligations. Ethics, in addition,
requires an assumption by the legal body of the standards and norms entered, and
not a settlement of them by a state body as in the case of deontological ones.
Likewise, the violation of the ethical norms attracts a moral responsibility, whereas
the violation of the deontological ones attracts a legal responsibility, namely a
disciplinary one”2. As is clear from this distinction, the concept of deontology is
associated with imperative norms, the disobedience of which can lead to legal
liability of the person (disciplinary, civil, etc.), while the notion of ethics is
associated with looser rules of conduct, which leaves margin of appreciation
greater to the recipient and do not attract in case of violation more than a vote of
blame from the community, and not a form of legal liability.
This is the meaning that we can derive from the etymology of the word,
considering that the term "deontology" has its root in the Greek / déon,
which means "what is needed, what is due, what is right"; in short, "debt", which in
conjunction with / logos - study, theory, study discipline forms the word
"deontology", which would designate debt theory; more precisely, the theory of
duties, that is, of the conscientious, internalized, assumed obligations, on the basis
of which man has to manifest.3
Also in relation to the distinction between ethical and deontological norms,
also pointed out that «a code of ethics is a means of correction imposed
downwards which prohibits "unacceptable behaviours, sanctions are negative,
disciplinary", While "a code of ethics has the role of stimulating the behaviour
desired by the professional body itself, the "sanctions" should be positive (such as
prizes, decorations, advances) for reaching or exceeding the objectives. The only
real sanction must be the blame, the deterioration of the reputation within the
professional body, possibly the exclusion from the professional association.4
2 C. Dnile, I. Copoeru, Between disciplinary sanction and moral conviction. Ethical tools and
procedures in the Romanian judicial system, p. 20, available on: http://cj.md/uploads/danilet-copoeru_
sanctiune-disciplinara-si-convingere-morala1.pdf, consulted on: 16.12.2015.
3 Idem, p. 3.
4 Idem, p. 21.