Criminological landmarks for explaining causes of crime 191
the level of group, collectivity or professional body, and on the other hand social
determinants, at the level of organisation or institution.
As for the psycho-social determinants, they can refer to the nature of
profession, lack of positive models within the institution, lack of positive
stimulation of the personnel or lack of encouraging professional values, scarce
professional training or the different pressures on the part of the entourage,
without limitation. As for the social vulnerabilities, they can be generated by the
system in particular, as a result of one of its malfunctions – lack or scarce of
resources, of technology, the existence of some inadequate criteria of selection or
promotion of the personnel, lack of efficiency of the applicable management, but
also of the environment and society management, altogether the quality of the
macro-environment, lack of models in the society, influence of the political
environment, low level of quality of life, respectively inadequate remuneration
which do not cover the minimum needs of a family.
Within the context of identification and analyse of the relationship between
organised criminality and corruption, they showed that, against the background of
global economy and of instauration of crisis, there is a loosening of the financial
system which consequently determines an increase of organised criminality, too.
As a measure that should be imposed as prevention and fight against criminality,
the European Union considers concretely the need to adopt concrete measures, i.e.
to grant adequate resources to manage such illegal demarches.
2.3. Levers of action in fighting serious forms of criminality
At the level of European Union, special attention is given to fighting serious
and organised criminality within a new cycle of policies that the Commission
considers as future priorities for the 2018-20217. The enhanced attention that the
European Union shows to organised criminality appears as a necessity in the
context in which organised criminality is a crucial factor in favour of terrorism,
through activities such as trafficking of firearms and production of forged
documents or through the funds coming from drug smuggling. Also, the border
between informatics criminality and the ”traditional” one disappears more
and more, as the offenders use internet as a means of enhancing their activities and
as a source of obtaining their means and findings some new methods of
committing the offences. Therefore, terrorism, organised criminality and
informatics criminality are interconnected fields, and supporting the fight against
organised criminality represents a key-priority of action at the level of the
European Union. The European Union visibly experiences the crime-related
impact and proposes as strategy to initiate coherent and solid operational actions
7 The European Comission, The sixth report on the progress made to achieve a union of effective and real
security, Bruxelles, 2017, available on https://ec.europa.eu/info/sites/info/files/annual-report-