The civil and political r ights a s protected under the Covenant from the core of
human r ights protection on the international plane. This paper seeks to demonstrate how
this goal may be a rchieved. The genesis of the Covenant will be discussed in the context of
the evolution of human rights law. Star ting from the normative fra mework a nd its
development after the a doption of the Universal Decla ration of Human Rights the scope of
the Covenant rights a s well as the du ties of the State par ties will be discussed. The
monitoring role o f th Human Rights Committee a s major element in the implementation
process will be closely examined. The paper will be focused on the status of the State
parties and the Status of the Covenant in domestic law. Also will specifically focus on the
State r eporting system a nd the individual complaint pr ocedure be carefully selected case
studies. In conclusion, will be discussed the legal consequences of violations of r ights
protected by the Covenant.
Keywords: Civil rights, politica l rights, human rights, Covena nt on civil and
political rig hts.
JEL Classification: K33
I. Origins and general description
Human rights protection is always a stony way, requiring a long breath and
protection. The rights of citizens to liberty and equality; sometimes referred to as
first generation rights. Civil rights include freedom to worship, to think and express
oneself, to vote, to take part in political life, and to have access to information2.
The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) is the core of the
legally binding human rights protection at the universal level. ICCPR is an
international human rights treaty, providing a range of protections for civil and
political rights. It is open for ratification to all states so it has universal relevance.
The ICCPR, and its two Optional Protocols, is part of the International Bill of
Human Rights, along with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and
Cultural Rights (ICESCR) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(UDHR). The first Protocol establishes an individual complaints mechanism, and
the second abolishes the death penalty.
The Covenant consists of a preamble, which links the full implementation
of equal rights for all members of the human family3 and 53 articles.
1 Aulona Haxhiraj - University ”Ismail Qemali” Vlorë, Albania, firstname.lastname@example.org
3 Preamble of International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; Adopted and opened for signature,
ratification and accession by General Assembly resolution 2200A (XXI) of 1 6 December 1966;
entry into force 23 March 1976, in accordance with Article 49.