Commercial law developments in Yugoslavia with a focus
in the Socialist Republic of Macedonia and Albania
Associate professor Endri PAPAJORGJI1
Associate professor Rezarta TAHIRAJ2
Commercial law is an abstract definition in a central planned economy, but
Yugoslavia had a system of its own and in the economic history books it has always a
special chapter. It all started with the planned system economy, but very early Yugoslavia
followed its own path, namely workers' self-government and a special property form, the
so-called social property. Albania instead followed the path of all socialist countries –
central planned economy and socialist property. This system can be considered a definition
of administrative socialism or etatism.3 This manuscript aims to analyze the commercial
reforms in Yugoslavia, Macedonia and Albania and its consequences towards free market
economy. A historic a nd deductive method will b e used to analyze the legal reforms that
made Yugoslavia a specialty in the communist block.
Keywords: Yugoslavia, Macedonia, Albania, commercial law, property.
JEL Classification: K20, K22, K23.
The Yugoslav socialism started with the first five-year plan (1947-1951),
through which the entire economic life was planned in advance and monitored to
the smallest detail. As in Albania, companies were legally independent legal
entities. In fact, they were part of the state administration.4 In the following period,
the Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (hereinafter: SRM) from
31.12.1946 was issued.5 Although the Yugoslav constitution envisaged self-
government of the Republics, this had only a very limited impact in the SRM. As a
1 Endri Papajorgji - Dean of the Faculty o f Law at Tirana Business University College, Tirana,
2 Rezarta Tahiraj - Chief of Department of Law at Aleksander Xhuvani University, Elbasan, Albania,
3 Horvat, B., Wirtschaftssysteme – Jugoslawien, in Albers/Born/Dürr/Hesse/Kraft/Lampert/Rose/
Rupp/Scherf/ Schmidt/Wittmann (Hrsg), Handwörterbuch der Wirtschaftswissenschaft – Wirtschaft
und Politik b is Zölle, 1982, p. 371; see also: Veljanovski, N., Zur verfassungsrechtlichen Stellung
Makedoniens im kommunistischen Jugoslawien, in Lukan/Jordan/ (Hrsg), Makedonien Geographie-
Ethnische Struktur-Geschichte-Sprache und Kultur-Politik-Wirtschaft-Recht (Makedonien) ÖOH
1998, p. 209.
4Teichert, J., Die kollektive Selbstverwaltung der Betriebe im Rahmen der Arbeiter-selbstverwaltung
in Jugoslawien, Bonn, 1959, p. 35.
5 Ustav na Narodna Republika Makedonija, Sl V VRM 1946/106.