208 SONIA ANDREEA STOICA
The 1990s years brought the general opinion that urban politics have changed.
Globalization and related changes in economic geographies have brought about
new urban political landscapes, in which an important element has been the
different role of both business and workers in urban politics (Davidson & Martin,
2014, p. 190). In this context, cities have to compete with one another and this
reduce influence of local political groups on urban government decision making.
Some traditional conceptual approaches on urbanism
The term "urban" according to the Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian
language, means belonging to the city, town and figuratively, "which demonstrates
urbanity, polite, civilized".
The concept of urbanization was outlined in the twentieth century, especially
after the International Congress of Modern Architecture (initiated by Le Corbusier)
and the adoption of the Athens Charter (1939), at the time when we can talk about
the beginning of modern urbanism.
We find the origins of urbanization in sedentary cultures that have been
defined and are recognized as such by various manners of "settlement",
organization of settlements, accompanied everywhere by the tendency of isolation
from the environment.
Traditional societies could not conceive the foundation of a settlement without
a firm boundary. Enclosure wall, moat, palisade or limit property existed at the
beginning, for religious reasons, then, for security reasons. That there has been this
close relationship, a period of extremely long time between settlement (city) and
religion - as interim cosmic forces - explains the durability of this concept in the
history of pre-modern urbanization.
Drawing limit settlement - accompanying obsessive traditional whole
civilization - have meant multiple, but the most subtle that it was the "closing" a
group of people who then turn into society.
Until the twentieth century, it is not known a European settlement lacks of
center, of a guidance system and a coherent internal structure. So, until this
moment (after millennia 6-7) any settlement that was known, described,
understood as being unique.
Minea wrote that, since the twentieth century no longer speaks of "settlements"
(Since the twentieth century no longer speaks of "settlements" (urban or rural), but
about "agglomeration". "Not being neither urban nor rural nor suburban, but
containing elements belonging to all three categories, new-type city - congestion -
defies conventional terminology experts” (Minea, 2014, p. 27).
As it is almost universally accepted the term urbanism as a neologism has
more than a century, and yet defines the notion that a priori seems to be as old as
urban civilization (Harouel, 2001, p. 5).
Some authors proposed two meanings. One of them stated that any sensible
action designed to develop, organize, decorate and transform the city and urban
space. So, the word designates urbanism and old reality which can be called