Analysis of offences concerning drug trafficking in romanian legislation

Author:Adrian Cristian Moise
Pages:214-224
SUMMARY

The study is carrying out an analysis of the drug trafficking offences referred to in Articles 2 and 3 of Law no.143/2000 on preventing and combating trafficking and illicit drug use. For the purpose of this analysis, the provisions of Article 31 letter a) of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 20 December 1988 and the provisions of Article 2 of Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of the Council of the European Union laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal acts and penalties applicable to illicit drug trafficking. At the same time, through this analysis, the study tries to establish whether the provisions of Articles 2 and 3 of Law no.143/2000 on preventing and combating trafficking and illicit drug use have adapted to the provisions of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 20 December 1988 and the provisions of Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of the Council of the European Union laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal offences and sanctions applicable to illicit drug trafficking.

 
CONTENT
214 ADRIAN CRISTIAN MOISE
ANALYSIS OF OFFENCES CONCERNING DRUG
TRAFFICKING IN ROMANIAN LEGISLATION
Adrian Cristian MOISE1
Abstract
The study is carrying out an analysis of the drug trafficking offences referred to in Articles 2
and 3 of Law no.143/2000 on preventing and combating trafficking and illicit drug use. For the
purpose of this analysis, the provisions of Article 31 letter a) of the United Nations Convention
against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 20 December 1988 and the
provisions of Article 2 of Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of the Council of the European
Union laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal acts and penalties
applicable to illicit drug trafficking.
At the same time, through this analysis, the study tries to establish whether the provisions of
Articles 2 and 3 of Law no.143/2000 on preventing and combating trafficking and illicit drug use
have adapted to the provisions of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic
Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 20 December 1988 and the provisions of Council Framework
Decision 2004/757/JHA of the Council of the European Union laying down minimum provisions on
the constituent elements of criminal offences and sanctions applicable to illicit drug trafficking.
Keywords: drug trafficking; offences; drugs.
§1. Preliminary considerations
According to the World Health Organization, the drug is the substance that,
being absorbed by a living organism, alters one or more bodily functions. In a
pharmacological sense, the drug is a substance used in medicine, of which abusive
use can create physical or psychic addiction or serious disorders of mental activity,
perception, and behaviour. In this regard, the name of drug shall apply only to
substances which may be designated and also by the general term narcotics. The
term narcotic has a legal and a pharmacological meaning. In the legal sense, a
narcotic is considered a drug when its potentials in terms of abuse and drug
addiction are highlighted. It is used in national and international legislation on
drug control 2.
1 Associate Professor, PhD, Spiru Haret University of Bucharest, Faculty of Juridical, Economic
and Administrative Sciences, Craiova, Romania; Attorney-at-law, Dolj Bar Association, Romania; E-
mail: adriancristian.moise@gmail.com.
2 Stancu, Emilian (2010). Forensics Treaty, Fifth Edition, Bucharest: Universul Juridic, p. 685.
Law Review vol. VIII, issue 2, Jul
y
-December 2018, pp. 214-224
Analysis of offences concerning drug trafficking in romanian legislation 215
Article 1 letter b) of Law no.143/20003 on combating trafficking and illicit drug
use defines drugs as “narcotic or psychotropic plants or substances or mixtures
containing such plants and substances as listed in Tables I to III” of this law.
In accordance with the provisions of Article 1 letter c) and d) of Law
no.143/2000 on preventing and combating trafficking and illicit drug use, drugs
are classified into two main categories: high-risk drugs (heroin, mescaline,
morphine, amphetamine, cocaine, codeine, opium, phencyclidine, etc.); risk drugs
(cannabis, cannabis resin, cannabis oil, diazepam, meprobamate, etc.). Also, Article
1 (e) defines the term precursor which refers to “substances frequently used in the
manufacture of drugs, listed in Table no. IV“ of this law.
For the purposes of international conventions, a drug means a substance of
those controlled by the United Nations Convention on Narcotic Drugs of 1961 and
as well as one of the psychotropic substances controlled by the United Nations
Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 21 February 1971.
According to the classification of the United Nations Convention on
Psychotropic Substances of 21 February 1971, psychotropic substances are divided
into three groups of drugs:
Stimulants (amphetamines and their derivatives).
Depressants (barbiturates, alcohol, tranquilizers).
Hallucinogens (lysergic acid diethylamide-LSD-, MDMA-Ecstasy,
mescaline, psilocybin, phencyclidine, marijuana).
Other authors4 add to this classification a new category, namely that of
narcotics including morphine, heroin, codeine, methadone.
Psychotropic substances are substances of synthetic or natural origin (almost
exclusively vegetal) capable of actively influencing human psyche and behaviour.
In a narrow sense, psychotropic substances are those substances whose
pharmacodynamic action involves pronounced effects on mental and emotional
processes.
Depending on their nature, drugs were classified as follows:5
a. Analgesics, intended to alleviate pain, whether severe or mild, without the
user losing consciousness, are non-selective depressants of the central nervous
system (CNS).
b. Sedatives are non-selective depressants that at normal therapeutic doses
produce diminished psychomotor hyperexcitability and are intended to reduce to
normal the functional tonicity of CNS. At high doses, sedatives strongly depress
CNS.
3 Republished in the Romanian Official Gazzette, Part I, no. 163 from the 6th of March 2014.
4 Saferstein, Richard (1995). Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Scienc New York: Prentice
Hall, Upper Saddle River, pp. 248-249.
5 Moise, Adrian Cristian; Stancu, Emilian (2017). Forensics. Methodological elements for investigating
offences. University course, Bucharest: Universul Juridic, pp. 133-134.
216 ADRIAN CRISTIAN MOISE
c. Hypnotics (sleeping pills) are depressant substances of CNS and cause
sleep. Barbiturates, metaqualone and chlorhydrate are hypnotic. Many drugs can
be sedative and hypnotic at the same time.
d. Stimulants activate CNS and increase neuro-cerebral activity. Certain
stimulants have a legal therapeutic use such as anorexigens, indicated in weight
loss, psychic depression, being psychostimulant. Amphetamines and cocaine are
the main drugs of this kind.
e. Hallucinogens act on the CNS, causing distortion of perceptions and
sensitivities. Known as psychedelics, lysergic acid diethylamide-LSD-, phencyclidine
and psilocybin are among them.
As they act on the human body, the drugs are divided into:
Psycholeptics (depressants) - barbiturates and tranquilizers.
Psychoanaleptics (stimulants) - amphetamine, opiates, cocaine.
Psychodysleptics (hallucinogens), which, in turn, are divided into
hallucinogens and depersonalization hallucinogens.
At international level, the most important legal instruments to fight drug-
related crime are the following: the United Nations Convention on Narcotic Drugs,
1961, the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances of 21 February
1971 and the United Nations Convention against illicit trafficking in narcotic drugs
and psychotropic substances of 20 December 1988. These three Conventions have
been ratified at national level through Decree no. 6266 of 1973 for Romania’s
ascension to the Single Convention on narcotic drugs of 1961 and the Protocol on
the amendment of it and by Law no. 1187 of 15 December 1992 for Romania’s
accession to the Convention on psychotropic substances of 1971 and the
Convention against illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances of
1988. The offences related to drug trafficking are provided under article 38 point 1
6 Published Official Bulletin no.213 from the 31st of December 1973.
7 Published in the Romanian Official Gazzette, Part I, no. 341 from the 30th of December 1992.
8 Article 3 (1) a) from the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances stipulates: „Each Party shall adopt such measures as may be necessary to
establish as criminal offences under its domestic law, when committed intentionally: a) i) The
production, manufacture, extraction; preparation, offering, offering for sale, distribution, sale,
delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch, dispatch in transit, transport, importation or
exportation of any narcotic drug or any psychotropic substance cont rary to the provisions of the 1961
Convention, the 1961 Convention as amended or the 1971 Convention; ii) The cultivation of opium
poppy, coca bush or cannabis plant for the purpose of the production of narcotic drugs contrary to the
provisions of the 1961 Convention and the 1961 Convention as amended; iii) The possession or
purchase of any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance for the purpose of any of the activities
enumerated in i) above; iv) The manufacture, transport or distribution of equipment, materials or of
substances listed in Table I and Table II, knowing that they are to be used in or for the illicit
cultivation, production or manufacture of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances; v) The
organization, management or financing of any of the offences enumerated in i), ii), iii) or iv) above”.
Analysis of offences concerning drug trafficking in romanian legislation 217
letter a) of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs
and Psychotropic Substances.
At the European Union level, the most important legal instrument in the fight
against drug trafficking is Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA9 of the Council of
the European Union laying down minimum provisions on the constituent
elements of criminal offences and sanctions applicable to illicit drug trafficking. In
Article 210 of Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA provides for offences related to
drug and precursor trafficking, which resume offences under Article 3 of
Convention United Nations against the illicit trafficking of narcotic drugs and
psychotropic substances in 1988, with a major difference: the Framework Decision
excludes from its scope the actions that are committed exclusively for the personal
consumption of their authors.
The offences related to drug trafficking are provided in Article 2 and Article 3
of Law no.143/2000 on preventing and combating trafficking and illicit drug use of
Chapter II, entitled Penalties for trafficking and other illicit operations with
substances under national control. The texts of Articles 2 and 3 of the Law
no.143/2000 set out two different offences: domestic drug trafficking and
international drug trafficking.
The text of Article 2 of the Law no.143/2000 provides: “(1) Cultivation,
production, manufacture, experimentation, extraction, preparation, transformation,
offering, sale offering, sale, distribution, delivery by any title, dispatch, transport,
procurement, purchase, holding or other operations related to the circulation of risk
drugs, without right, shall be punished by imprisonment from 2 to 7 years and the
prohibition of certain rights. (2) If the facts provided at par. (1) have high-risk drugs,
punishment is imprisonment from 5 to 12 years, and prohibition of certain rights”.
The text of Article 3 of the Law no.143/2000 provides: “(1) The introduction or
removal from the country, as well as the import or export of risk drugs, without
9 Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JAI of 25 october 2004 laying down minimum
provisions on the constituent elements of criminal acts and penalties in the field of illicit drug
trafficking, Official Journal of the European Union, L 335, 11.11.2004.
10 Article 2 from the Council Framework Decision 2004/757/JAI stipulates: „1. Each Member
State shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the following intentional conduct when
committed without right is punishable: (a) the production, manufacture, extraction, preparation,
offering, offering for sale, distribution, sale, delivery on any terms whatsoever, brokerage, dispatch,
dispatch in transit, transport, importation or exportation of drugs; (b) the cultivation of opium poppy,
coca bush or cannabis plant; (c) the possession or purchase of drugs with a view to conducting one of
the activities listed in (a);
(d) the manufacture, transport or distribution of precursors, knowing that they are to be used in
or for the illicit production or manufacture of drugs.
2. The conduct described in paragraph 1 shall not be included in the scope of this Framework
Decision when it is committed by its perpetrators exclusively for their own personal consumption as
defined by national law”.
218 ADRIAN CRISTIAN MOISE
right, shall be punished by imprisonment of 3 to 10 years and the interdiction of
certain rights. If the facts provided at paragraph (1) concern high-risk drugs, the
penalty is imprisonment from 7 to 15 years and the interdiction of certain rights”.
§2. The legal analysis of drug trafficking offences
2.1. The pre-existing conditions
The object of the crime
The special legal object of the two drug trafficking offences consists in the
social relations regarding public health whose normal existence and deployment
depend on the observance by all persons of the legal provisions related to the drug
regime11. We note that drug trafficking offences also have one secondary special legal
object, which refers to the circulation of risk and high-risk drugs. The offence of
international drug trafficking has as its special legal object the social relations
related to customs operations and to the import-export operations12.
The material object of drug trafficking offences it is the risk and high-risk
drugs. We highlight the fact that, in some ways of committing domestic drug
trafficking offences, such as cultivation, production, manufacturing,
experimentation, extraction, preparation and transformation, drugs are the
product of the crime and not the material object of the offence. Thus, in these
situations, the material object of the drug trafficking offence refers to plants which
are cultivated or are being subjected to production, manufacturing,
experimentation, extraction, preparation or transformation.
The subjects of the crime
The active subject of drug trafficking offences can be any person who fulfils the
general conditions of criminal liability. Criminal participation is possible in all its
forms: co-author, incitement and complicity.
In the case where the perpetrator of the drug trafficking offence has a special
quality, performing a function involving the exercise of public authority, and the
fact was committed in the exercise of this function or the fact was committed by a
healthcare professional or a person who has, according to law, powers in the fight
against drugs, the aggravating circumstances will be retained according to the
provisions of Article 13, paragraph 1 and letter a) and letter b) of Law no.143/2000.
We point out that drug trafficking offences can also be committed in the case of the
organized crime group, being incident the provisions of Article 367 of the
Romanian Criminal Code and the rules of the conjuncture of offences.
11 Buzatu, Nicoleta Elena (2012). Trafficking and illicit drug use. Multidisciplinary aspects, Bucharest:
Universul Juridic, p. 213.
12 Cşuneanu, Florin Daniel (2013). Organized crime in European criminal law, Bucharest: Universul
Juridic, p. 169.
Analysis of offences concerning drug trafficking in romanian legislation 219
The main passive subject of the drug trafficking offences is the State, and the
secondary passive subject can be any natural person who suffers the consequences of
committing deeds, being endangered his/her health13. In the case where the
secondary passive subject holds the risk drugs for own consumption, it will also
become an active subject of the offence related to the illicit drug use provided by
Article 4 of the Law no.143/2000.
2.2. The constitutive content
The objective side
In the case of the domestic drug trafficking offence, the material element
refers to the following activities referred to in Article 21 of Law no.143/2000:
cultivation, production, manufacture, experimentation, extraction, preparation,
transformation, offering, sale offering, sale, distribution, delivery by any title,
dispatch, transport, procurement, purchase, possession or other operations related
to the circulation of risk drugs, without right.
Cultivation refers to activity of seeding, plant care until harvesting. In order to
meet the conditions of the offence, the cultivation activity must aim at the
extraction of the drugs from the plants. The cultivation of plants containing drugs
is carried out under legal conditions in Romania only on the basis of an
authorization issued by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. Thus,
it is allowed to cultivate plants containing substances prohibited by national
legislation only if they are processed for technical, medical and scientific purposes.
Production of drugs is an activity that ultimately results in drug-making, which
is part of the category of those subject to national control.
According to the provisions of Article 2 letter k) of Law no.339/200514 on the
legal regime of plants, narcotic and psychotropic substances and preparations,
manufacture refers to “all operations other than production that make it possible to
obtain narcotic or psychotropic substances, including the purification and
transformation of narcotic drugs or psychotropic substances into other narcotic or
psychotropic substances; this term also covers the manufacture of preparations
other than those which are made on a prescription in a pharmacy”. Therefore, the
manufacture of drugs is an industrial activity, which involves the use of many
technological operations to obtain drugs in large quantities, involving a large
number of people15.
Experimentation of drugs refers to testing of drugs or plants that constitute
drugs. Experimental activity is only allowed for human, scientific and veterinary
purposes, based on the authorization issued by competent bodies, such as the
Ministry of Health.
13 Buzatu, Nicoleta Elena (2012), op. cit., p. 224.
14 Published in the Romanian Official Gazzette, Part I, no. 1095 from the 5th of December 2005.
15 Cşuneanu, Florin Daniel (2013), op. cit., p. 216.
220 ADRIAN CRISTIAN MOISE
Extraction refers to the process of removing drugs from plants containing them.
Preparation consists of the process of mixing certain substances, resulting in the
drug being consumed.
Transformation of drugs involves the process of turning a risk drug into a high-
risk drug.
Offering drugs refers to the activity of a person providing drugs free of charge
to another person for the purpose of consumption.
Sale offering is the activity of putting the drugs into the commercial circuit,
usually with the dealers working within the organized criminal group.
Sale of drugs is the action by which the transfer of drugs to other people is
made for a fee.
Distribution of drugs refers to the activity of placing quantities of drugs,
usually not very high.
Delivery, by any title, is the action of transmitting drugs to others, free of
charge or for consideration.
Dispatch refers to the activity of dispatching drugs through courier services or
through some persons.
Transport of drugs refers to the activity of moving drugs from a locality to
another locality within the same country, where the domestic drug trafficking
offence will occur or refers to the movement of drugs from one country to another
country, in which case there will be a crime of international drug trafficking.
Procurement of the drug is the activity of the offender to get possession of some
drugs through his/her own forces.
Purchase of drugs means buying them all the time by the offenders.
Possession of drugs refers to the activity of a person who possesses these
prohibited substances in order to convey them to others.
By the phrase other drug trafficking operations are meant any other activities with
drugs that endanger public health.
In the case of the international drug trafficking offence, the material element
refers to the following regulatory modalities referred to in Article 31 of Law
no.143/2000: introduction or removal from the country as well as import or export
of risk drugs.
Introduction of drugs refers to the action of passing drugs from a foreign state
into the national state of the offender. Removing drugs from the country refers to
the passing of drugs from the national state to the foreign state. However,
importation of risk or high-risk drugs refers to the introduction into a state of risk or
high-risk drugs produced in other states, and the exportation consists of removing
risk or high-risk drugs from the state where they are produced16.
16 Idem, p. 176.
Analysis of offences concerning drug trafficking in romanian legislation 221
We emphasize that in all the normative forms presented above, the actions
must be carried out without right.
Immediate consequence of the offences referred to in Articles 2 and 3 of the
Law no.143/2000 consists in creating a state of danger for public health, public
order, social security, and, in the event of aggravation under Article 11 Law
no.143/2000, the deed must result in the death of the victim.
There must be a causality link between the activity of the offender and the
consequence that results from the materiality of the crime.
The subjective side
The offences related to drug trafficking are committed with the guilt form of
intention, both direct intention and indirect intention. Concerning intention, in
order to intervene in criminal responsibility, we emphasize that it is mandatory for
the offender to know the illicit nature of the substances he/she uses in his/her
activities.
2.3. The forms of the offence
The preparatory acts are possible, but they are not criminalised and thus they
are not punishable.
The attempt is possible and is punished according to the article 12, paragraph
1 of the Law no.143/2000. Pursuant to the provisions of Article 12 par.2 of Law
no.143/2000, we note that assimilated to attempt are also the production or
procurement of the means or instruments, as well as the taking of measures for
committing the domestic and international drug trafficking offences.
Consumption of the crimes of drug trafficking takes place at the moment
when the material element of the objective aspect was achieved, which is
composed of a series of actions and the immediate consequence happened.
Therefore, the offences are consumed when the material element is carried out and
the socially dangerous result is produced.
The exhaustion of the crimes of drug trafficking occurs at the time of
committing the last act criminalised by law. The offence can be committed in
continuous (in respect to the following normative modalities: cultivation,
preparation and possession) or in continued form.
We note that both drug trafficking offences, which are danger offences, also
present one aggravating form, which is highlighted by the material object of the
two offences: in the case of the standard variants, the material object consists in the
risk drugs, and in the case of the aggravating forms in Article 2 and Article 3, the
material object is the high-risk drugs. Another aggravating form of drug trafficking
offences is that provided by Article 11 of the Law no.143/2000 when the two
offences caused the death of the victims. Also, according to Article 13 of Law
no.143/2000, the following situations constitute aggravating circumstances: “the
person who committed the offence was serving a function involving the exercise of
222 ADRIAN CRISTIAN MOISE
public authority, and the deed was committed in the exercise of this function; the
deed has been committed by a healthcare professional or a person who is
responsible under the law in the fight against drugs; the drugs were sent or
delivered, distributed or offered to a minor, a mentally ill person, a person placed
in a therapeutic program or have performed such other activities prohibited by law
with respect to one of these persons or if the deed has been committed in an
institution or education, medical, military unit, prison, welfare centres, re-
education or medical-educational institutions, places where pupils and students,
carry out educational, sports, social activities or in their vicinity; the use of minors
in the commission of the deeds referred to in articles 2 and 3; the drugs were mixed
with other substances that they have increased the danger to the life and integrity
of persons”.
According to the provisions of Article 133 of Law no.143/2000, in the case of
an aggravating circumstance related to the perpetration of deeds in an educational
institution or in places where pupils, students and young people carry out
educational, sports, social activities or in their vicinity, the Romanian legislator has
determined that at the special maximum stipulated by the law may add an
increase that may not exceed 5 years in the case of imprisonment or the general
maximum in the case of the fine.
2.4. Modalities
The drug trafficking offences present the following normative modalities,
according to Articles 2 and 3 of Law no.143/2000: cultivating, producing,
manufacturing, experimenting, extracting, preparing, transforming, offering,
offering for sale, selling, distributing, delivering, dispatching, transporting,
procurement, purchasing, possession or other operations on the movement of risk
drugs, introducing or removing from the country, as well as importing or
exporting risk drugs, without right.
To these normative modalities may correspond various fact modalities.
2.5. Sanctions
In the case of the offence of domestic drug trafficking, provided for in Article 2
of the Law no. 143/2000, the punishment stipulated by the law is imprisonment
from 2 to 7 years and the prohibition of certain rights in the case of the variant-
type, and imprisonment from 5 to 12 years and the prohibition of certain rights in
the case of the aggravating variant.
In the case of international drug trafficking offence, as provided by article 3 of
the Law no. 143/2000, the punishment stipulated by the law is imprisonment from
3 to 10 years and the prohibition of rights in the case of the variant-type and
imprisonment from 7 to 15 years and the prohibition of rights in the case of the
aggravating variant.
Analysis of offences concerning drug trafficking in romanian legislation 223
§3. Procedural aspects
The criminal prosecution initiates ex officio.
§4. Conclusions
Following the carried out analysis, we found out that the text of Articles 2 and
3 of Law no.143/2000 on domestic drug trafficking offences and international drug
trafficking offences adapted almost entirely to the provisions of the text of Article
31 letter a) of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic
Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 20 December 1988 and to the provisions of
Article 21 of Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of the Council of the European
Union laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal
offences and sanctions applicable to illicit drug trafficking.
Regarding the sanctioning regime, we noticed that the penalties stipulated by
Articles 2 and 3 of Law no.143/2000 are much more severe than those proposed
through Article 4 of the Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA. Thus, we highlight
the decision of the Romanian legislator to increase the minimum and maximum
limits of drug trafficking offences through the latest amendments to the Law
no.143/2000, in view of the serious and cross-border nature of these crimes.
We noticed that the text of Article 13 of Law no.143/2000, on aggravating
circumstances adapted to the text of Article 317 point 5 of the United Nations
Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of
20 December 1988.
17 Article 3 (5) from the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances stipulates: „The Parties shall ensure that their courts and other competent
authorities having jurisdiction can take into account factual circumstances which make the
commission of the offences established in accordance with paragraph l of this article particularly
serious, such as: a) The involvement in the offence of an organized criminal group to which the
offender belongs; b) The involvement of the offender in other international organized criminal
activities; c) The involvement of the offender in other illegal activities facilitated by commission of the
offence; d) The use of violence or arms by the offender; e) The fact that the offender holds a public
office and that the offence is connected with the office in question; f) The victimization or use of
minors; g) The fact that the offence is committed in a penal institution or in an educational institution
or social service facility or in their immediate vicinity or in other places to which school children and
students resort for educational, sports and social activities; h) Prior conviction, particularly for similar
offences, whether foreign or domestic, to the extent permitted under the domestic law of a Party”.
224 ADRIAN CRISTIAN MOISE
Reference
1. Buzatu, Nicoleta Elena (2012). Trafficking and illicit drug use. Multidisciplinary
aspects, Bucharest: Universul Juridic.
2. Cşuneanu, Florin Daniel (2013). Organized crime in European criminal law,
Bucharest: Universul Juridic.
3. Moise, Adrian Cristian; Stancu, Emilian (2017). Forensics. Methodological
elements for investigating offences. University course, Bucharest: Universul Juridic.
4. Saferstein, Richard (1995). Criminalistics: An Introduction to Forensic Scienc
New York: Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River.
5. Stancu, Emilian (2010). Forensics Treaty, Fifth Edition, Bucharest: Universul
Juridic.
6. United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and
Psychotropic Substances of 20 December 1988.
7. Framework Decision 2004/757/JHA of the Council of the European Union
laying down minimum provisions on the constituent elements of criminal offences
and sanctions applicable to illicit drug trafficking.
8. Law no.143/2000 on preventing and combating trafficking and illicit drug
use.
9. The Romanian Criminal Code.