Perspectives of Law and Public Administration

Bucharest Academy of Economic Studies
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  • Criminal Liability Of The Legal Person

    The legal person, with the exception of the state and the public authorities, is criminally liable for the crimes committed in the accomplishment of the activity object or in the interest or on behalf of the legal person. Public institutions are not criminally liable for the crimes committed in the exercise of an activity that cannot be the subject of the private domain. The criminal liability of the legal person does not exclude the criminal liability of the natural person who contributed to the commission of the same deed. The criminal liability of the legal person is direct and personal, which means that the eventual right of recourse of the legal person against the natural person who is responsible for committing the crime is exercisable on the basis of criminal civil liability. Pursuant to the principle of the territoriality of the criminal law, foreign legal persons who commit crimes on the Romanian territory will be criminally liable according to the Romanian criminal law. Keywords: criminal liability, legal person, criminal offense, criminal law

  • Legal Aspects Of Economic Espionage

    Economic espionage is the unlawful targeting and theft of critical economic intelligence, such as trade secrets and intellectual property. The term refers to the clandestine acquisition or outright theft of invaluable proprietary information in a number of areas, including technology, finance, and government policy. Offenders get cheap access to critical information, leading victims to suffer economic losses. Keywords: economic espionage, legal rules, unlawful competition, damages

  • Legal Instruments With An International Vocation That Regulate The Control Of Water Sediments

    The human being has been since the creation in full process of knowledge, of satisfying human needs but also of wellness, which represented on the one hand a progress, and on the other hand, it represented a forced acceleration of his life on earth, a situation that has created an exhaustion of all that means environment, disturbing the natural balance of nature and contributing to a significant degradation of environmental factors: atmosphere, water and soil. Water, as an environmental factor, essential and indispensable for human existence for survival, knowledge, wellness and progress, has become, in time, an exhaustible resource for the human being and the activities undertaken by it. Under the strong effervescence of the pressure of exhaustion and degradation of water resources, by the deposition of dangerous substances and materials, the necessity of creating new forms of constraint directed against those who disturb the natural balance of water resources was realized. These new forms of constraint and prevention of depletion of water resources, have taken the form of legal instruments meant to solve the problems arising in the prevention, protection and mention of water quality, but which will determine a sustainable progress for the population and for present and future generations. Keywords: water protection, environmental degradation, water degradation, legal norms

  • Protection Of Religious Freedom In The Criminal Law Of Romania And Of The Republic Of Moldova

    This scientific article is devoted to the reconceptualization of the legal-criminal protection of religious freedom in the criminal law of Romania and of the Republic of Moldova. The purpose of this scientific message consists in the meticulous identification and analysis of the special legal object of the criminal offenses referred to in paragraph (2) art. 381 Romanian Criminal Code and art. 185 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Moldova. On this occasion they were subjected to a thorough analysis: the European legislation in the field of religious freedom, the criminal and extra-legal legislation in the field of religious freedom in Romania and the Republic of Moldova, as well as the contemporary doctrine of recent years. Following the study carried out, certain legislative gaps were identified that can be easily removed by reviewing the incriminating framework of the criminal acts that affect the religious freedom of the person. The conclusions of the broad law and the recommendations de lege ferenda created under the empire of the latest legislative tendencies at European level can be taken into account in the legislative process. Keywords: religious freedom; religious belief; the right to religious belief; religious worship; esoteric worship; spiritual worship; attacks on religious freedom

  • Jus Cogens (Peremptory Norms) - A Key Concept Of The International Law

    One of the most important concept of international law, jus cogens, still has a controversial significance. Jus cogens is a Latin term meaning a mangatory or compelling law, and it refers to the peremptory norms of general international law from which derogation is forbidden. Despite the formal recognition of this legal concept, based on articles 53 and 64 of the 1969 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, regarding the nullity of the provisions of a treaty which come into conflict with a peremptory norm, jus cogens has a wider application in the international realm than the law of treaties. Therefore, jus cogens can appear in different forms, such as treaty law, customary law, general principles of law, etc., according to the content of the norms. This paper aims to analyse the significance of this legal concept, the role of it in international law and the relevance of it for the international doctrine and the jurisprudence of international courts. Keywords: international law, jus cogens, peremptory norm, international public order

  • Noise Pollution In Albania Towards European Standards

    Noise pollution is disturbing noise with a harmful impact on the activity of human or animal life. Noise nuisance is a global phenomenon that generates a sense of resentment associated with any agent or condition that is recognized or trusted by an individual or group of individuals to adversely affect them. The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern for the general public as well as policymakers in Europe. Unwanted noise can damage psychological health, can cause hypertension, high levels of stress, hearing loss, sleep disturbances and other harmful effects. Albania ranks among the countries with the highest acoustic pollution in Europe. Every citizen has the right to be protected from the harmful effects of environmental noise. The institutional responsibilities for disciplining noise-generating activities are related to the ministry or authority responsible for licensing. The protection applies to noise, which exposes people to the environment where they live, in residential areas, in public institutions, in public parks, in nature, in children's institutions, health's institutions, educational, cultural, religious institutions and others environments similar to them. This paper aims to analyze the legal, administrative and organizational measures taken to manage environmental noise in Albania, as well as to comply with the requirements of the EU Basic Directive and other related directives, identifying problems related to this sector. The methods used to carry out this paper are descriptive, analytical, and comparative. Keywords: environmental noise, transport, public services sector, public health

  • Waiving The Criminal Prosecution According To The Decision Of The Constitutional Court No. 23/2016

    In the present paper we have examined the institution of waiving the criminal prosecution, as provided in the current law, a text which was modified after the publication of the Decision of the Constitutional Court no. 23/2016. We also considered the formulation of critical opinions regarding the possible existence of other elements of unconstitutionality in the text in force. A very important aspect is the notification of the absence in the text, of some provisions that condition the application of the institution on the need to repair the prejudice caused to the victim. The paper can be useful to students and master students of the country's faculties, as well as practitioners in the field. Also, the work can be useful to the legislator for operating some changes in the current content of the text that regulates this institution. Keywords: crime; critical opinions; de lege ferenda proposals; criteria

  • The Legislative Acts Of The European Union

    Whether we are specialist in law, economics, art or a simple individual, all the citizens of the European Union meet in daily life, with legal terms such as regulation, directive, decision. We also get in touch, directly or indirectly with the institutions of the European Union, The Parliament, the Council, the Commission etc. For the states of western Europe, members of the European Communities for decades, these institutions and legal notions are absolutely normal, commonplace. For the citizens of the states from central and eastern Europe, relatively new members of the European Union, after 2000, these legal terms are still novelty. This is the reason why, the scientific paper aims to analyze the provisions of the Lisbon Treaty, Section 1, Chapter 2, art. 288 and the following regarding the legislative acts of the European Union. According to art. 288 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, -to exercise the Union's competences, the institutions shall adopt regulations, directives, decisions, recommendations and opinions". The paper aims to presents their legal character, the competent institutions to adopt these legislatives acts, the procedure for adopting and entering into force of these acts. In achieving this scientific objective, we shall present these acts comparatively, emphasizing the similarities and the differences between them, considering both the provisions of the Lisbon Treaty, as well as the scientific works in the field of the European Union Law. Keywords: regulation, directive, decision, recommendation, European Union, legal acts, European Parliament, European Commission, Council

  • Aspects Regarding The Notion Of Professionals And The Classification Of Professionals

    The work summarizes the theoretical consequences of introducing the notion of "professional" in the New Civil Code. This notion outlines a new conception in the commercial or business law doctrine, being an effect of replacing the old term "trader" (natural person or legal person) used for a long time, not only by theoreticians, but also by practitioners with the complex term "professional trader". Thus, not only the notion of professional is of interest here, but also the classification of professionals. Moreover, with the entry into force of the New Civil Code, the old objective concept of defining commercialization, set by the old Commercial Code from 1887 (implicitly repealed by the New Civil Code, on October 1, 2011), was abandoned and a formal criteria was introduced, procedurally regarding the definition of commerciality (registration in the Trade Register of any professional trader, be it a natural person or a legal person). Keywords: professional, New Civil Code, professional trader, professional non-trader, uniqueness of private law

  • The Right To Reply From A Measure For Restoring The Right To Dignity To A Personality Right

    The right to dignity is fundamentally linked to the human being. Any breach thereof must give the holder the opportunity to repair the prejudice caused. Most of the time the prejudice is primarily non-patrimonial, which makes it more difficult to remedy. The right of reply gives the interested party a non-patrimonial remedy of the dignity through the possibility of restoring his/her reputation by presenting his/her variant of truth. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the importance of granting the right of reply in the shortest possible time and through the fastest possible means, including through provisional measures. Its recognition at the legislative level only in the field of audio-visual communications is not sufficient, but may represent a starting point for its extension in the civil law. The lack of an express regulation in civil matter does not, however, impede its granting, but the observance of some conditions specific to the civil means of protection of the personality rights is required, and the time elapsed until its exercise is longer and the reply may become inconsiderable. Reparation by equivalent cannot fully restore the right to dignity, which is why the legislative recognition in civil law of the right of reply is required as a personality right in the interest of the individual's self-determination regarding the public presentation of his/her person. Keywords: right to reply, dignity, reputation, lege ferenda

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